Penguins, Predators & Prey


Falkland Islands - Magellanic Penguins, Predators and Prey






Penguins, Predators and Prey is a series of stamp issues depicting each
of the familiar Falkland penguins, together with some of their
respective predators and prey. This issue features the Magellanic
Penguin.






The Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus is one of the five
species which breed in the Falkland Islands. They are medium-sized
penguins which grow to 70cm tall and weigh about 4 kilos. The males are
slightly larger than the females. They can live up to 25 years in the
wild.






Magellanic Penguins are the most numerous of the Spheniscus penguins, a
genus which includes the African, the Humboldt and the Galapagos
species. They breed along the coasts of Argentina, Chile and the
Falkland Islands. The world population is estimated to be approaching 2
million pairs with around 5% breeding in the Falklands. During the
winter they are pelagic and can be seen as far north as Rio de Janiero.






Magellanic Penguins were first encountered by Europeans about 600 miles
north of the Falklands during Ferdinand Magellan’s ill-fated voyage of
circumnavigation in 1520. Magellan referred to them as “Black Geese”
and noted, with culinary precision, that they had to be skinned rather
than plucked. In 1578, Sir Francis Drake’s crew clubbed 3000 for
provisions in one day on Penguin Island, off the coast of Patagonia. In
1592, after discovering the Falklands, John Davis sailed the Desire to
the same island. They filled the ship’s stores with 14000 salted down
but insufficiently dried penguins reckoning that 4 men would eat 5 birds
per day during the voyage home. As the ship became becalmed under the
tropical sun, and with only stagnant water to drink and no fresh greens,
the penguins took their revenge. The carcasses went rotten. Swarming
maggots began to eat everything including the ships timbers and even the
men themselves. Only 16 of the original crew of 76 survived to tell the
tale as the vessel reached Berehaven in Bantry Bay. They were carried
ashore by townsfolk as the tiny harbour filled with the stench of
putrefying penguins.






In the Falklands, this species is affectionately known as the “Jackass”
penguin because its loud and oft repeated spring song is reminiscent of
the hee-hawing of a donkey.






The cover illustration shows a Magellanic penguin underwater. All
penguins are flightless seabirds and hunt for food under the waves.
Their bodies are heavy and muscular and their wing bones are fused
together as wings take on the role of paddles. Their tails act as
rudders to steer them through the water.









30p Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus at the entrance to its
breeding burrow






In the Falklands, Magellanic Penguins breed in individual underground
burrows up to 5 metres long which they dig in the peaty soil. They are
particularly fond of tussac islands but are also common in other areas
where tussac is absent. They are colonial nesters and often form quite
large though loose assemblages. “Jackasses” are the only Falkland
species to nest in burrows. This has the obvious advantages of
protecting the eggs and young from aerial predators but there is a risk
from flooding during rainstorms. Both birds and burrows can become
infested with “Jackass” fleas. Magellanic penguins return from their
winter pelagic wanderings in September. Males appear first to reclaim
and clean out their burrows. Females are able to recognize their mates
through their call alone and often mate with the same partner each year.
Two eggs are laid in mid to late October. Incubation lasts about 40 days
after which the chicks are fed and cared for by their parents for about
a month. Individual birds can forage up to 500 km from the nest site
although, during the chick rearing stage, the parents generally remain
within 30 km. Following the breeding season the penguins go to sea to
fatten up in preparation for the annual moult for which they gather
silently along favoured beaches in February. By mid-April they have
returned to the ocean for the austral winter.









75p Falkland Sprat Sprattus fuegensis






Magellanic penguins are opportunistic feeders, taking roughly equal
proportions of fish, squid and crustaceans. During chick-rearing,
foraging trips take place on a daily basis during daylight hours. Birds
generally hunt at depths of less than 50m, but may dive up to 100m. One
of the more common prey species is the Falkland Sprat or Fuegian Sardine
Sprattus fuegensis. This a small fish about 150mm in length which breeds
in spring and early summer in the coastal shelf waters around the
Falkland Islands and feeds on copepods, euphausiids, mysids, pelagic
amphipods, chaetognaths, eggs and fish larvae. Large numbers appear
close inshore during the summer making them ideal prey for penguins. The
maximum recorded age is five years. The Falkland Sprat also lives along
the Patagonian coast between 43° 30'N and 55° S.






£1 Falkland Skua Catharacta antarctica






Magellanic penguins encounter a number of predators at sea such as sea
lions, leopard seals and orcas. They also face predation of chicks and
eggs by avian predators such as caracaras, gulls and skuas although, by
nesting in burrows, such predation is greatly reduced. The Falkland Skua
is amongst the fastest and most skilled of all the flying birds. Add to
that power and strength, high intelligence and longevity and the
penguins have a formidable foe. Skuas are quick to spot any weak or
infirm “Jackasses” and often attack them in mobs. Being without the
claws and hooked beaks of hawks, skuas have to rely on each other to
take hold of different parts of their prey in order to tear it apart.
Falkland Skuas are entirely pelagic during the southern winter and come
ashore in the Falklands only between October and April. The illustration
shows part of their distinctive “courtship walk”. They nest in loose
colonies, often close to their prey which, in addition to Magellanic
Penguins, also includes other penguins and prions. They also specialize
in harrying and forcing shags to re-gorge their food in flight over the
ocean.






£1.20 Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus performing
“ecstatic" display






Breeding Magellanic Penguins are often seen stretching skyward and
calling in what is termed the “ecstatic” display. Males will perform
this in the spring to attract a mate. Once paired up, a male and female
will often display simultaneously to strengthen the bond between them.
Each bird sings loudly while they perform. These rituals convey
territorial, sexual and identification information both to each other
and to other members of the colony. They are often enacted as a pair
bonding exercise after a skirmish with a predator or a rival. Such
displays continue throughout the breeding season and in particular in
the evening when the adults return to the nesting burrow from the sea.
To experience a calm summer evening close to a “Jackass” colony, with
the air full of penguin song, is amongst the most magical of Falkland
experiences.



Liner written by Tony Chater.



Technical details:



Technical details:



Artist: Tony Chater



Printer: BDT International Security Printing



Process: Lithography



Perforation: 14 per 2cms



Stamp size: 30.56 x 38mm



Sheet Layout: 50 (2 x 25)



Release date: 21 August, 2015



Production Co-ordination: Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd