Falkland Islands


    • Christ Church Cathedral
    • Christ Church Cathedral
    • 1892 – 2017

      125 years of Christ Church Cathedral



      In February 2017, Christ Church Cathedral, Stanley, in the Falkland Islands celebrated the 125th anniversary of its consecration.


      Shortly after the capital of the Falkland Islands was moved from Port Louis to Stanley in the mid-1800s, the Exchange Building was erected on the harbour front where the Cathedral now stands. In 1865 the eastern wing was given by government for use as a church and was named Holy Trinity Church, but never consecrated.


      On the 21st December 1869 Waite Hockin Stirling was consecrated Bishop of the new Diocese of the Falkland Islands. This was a vast new missionary Diocese which incorporated the whole of South America with the exception of British Guiana. In January 1872 he was enthroned as Bishop of his Diocese in Holy Trinity Church in Stanley.


      The Reverend Lowther E. Brandon was appointed Colonial Chaplain to the Islands in 1877 and from the time of his arrival he sensed that Holy Trinity Church was not satisfactory as the cathedral church of this vast new Diocese. In 1882 a church building committee was formed to plan for the building of a new church, and when, in 1886, a peat slip destroyed the Exchange building and, with it, Holy Trinity Church, plans gathered momentum. From that time, Bishop Stirling and Reverend Brandon worked tirelessly for the erection of the Cathedral.


      The Falkland Island Government granted the site and the stone of the demolished Exchange building and the right to quarry stone free on Crown lands. Three thousand pounds was raised by Bishop Stirling through an appeal launched in the United Kingdom in November 1888 which was managed by his son-in-law, Mr Robinson. Donations included £30 given by Queen Victoria. The first donation of three sovereigns was given to the appeal fund within the Islands by the captain of a merchant vessel which had foundered off Cape Horn and other skippers followed suit. Fund raising events, and individual, and corporate donations raised sufficient funds to allow the building to go ahead.


      The Cathedral is built of local stone with red brick dressing. The building is one hundred and fourteen feet long and just over fifty feet wide.


      The foundation stone was laid by Bishop Stirling and Governor Kerr on the 6th March 1890 and work progressed using local labour supervised by a working foreman mason from the United Kingdom. Fundraising continued as the actual cost was around £12,000. (In this 125th Anniversary year fundraising to replace the roof and do other necessary renovation work has totalled over £327,000, all raised within the Falkland Islands).


      The consecration of Christ Church Cathedral took place in the forenoon of the 21st February 1892, in the presence of a Congregation of over three hundred. The Captain, Chaplain, and other Officers of H.M.S. “Cleopatra”, with nearly 100 seamen and marines, manifested their interest by assisting on the occasion.


      The Falkland Islands Magazine reported on the event in its March edition:

      ‘A succession of days of beautiful weather preceded the day of opening the church; but the early hours of Feb 21 were wet and stormy, causing some misgiving to the wakeful as to what the riper hours would prove to be. The sun, however, triumphed, and bright skies looked down propitiously upon the solemn ceremonial. We devoutly hope that Christ Church may be a bond of union and a permanent blessing to the Residents of Stanley, and to the Colonists at large. By the Constitution the Church is of course Episcopal, and on the lines of the Mother Church in England. It has a Cathedral dignity, and at the same time is to be used as the People’s Church, under popular management’


      The magazine article concluded, ‘We hope to see... Christ Church, Stanley become known far and wide as a monument of Christian Faith, rich in the beauty of holiness, a praise and a joy in the earth’.


      As in many churches, the pews are equipped with kneelers in front of the seating bench so that members of the congregation can kneel on them instead of the floor. The kneelers in Christ Church Cathedral have been designed by past and present members of the congregation and depict many interesting aspects of life in the Falklands.


      Each sheet of stamps includes two examples of these beautiful kneelers in the central gutters:


      31p “The Secretariat” designed by Angela Lee and stitched by Emalina Woodward and “View of Surf Bay” designed and stitched by Carol Cant.


      76p “View of Christ Church Cathedral” designed and stitched by Kate Stevens and “View of the Lady Elizabeth Wreck” designed by Nikki Buxton and stitched by Mannie Curd.


      £1.01 “Body Creek Bridge” designed by Angela Lee and stitched by Phyllis Jaffray and “Cape Pembroke Lighthouse” designed and stitched by Helen Lindley.


      £1.22 “Falkland Islands Crest” charted by Jenny Cox and stitched by Jan Miller and “Rockhopper Penguin” designed by Jenny Cox and stitched by Mrs Norrel.


      Technical details:-

      Designer Bee Design

      Printer Cartor Security Printing

      Process Stochastic Lithography

      Perforation 13 x 13 ¼ per 2cm

      Stamp size 30.6 x 38mm

      Sheet Layout 20 (2 x 10) with pictorial gutters.

      Release date 18 December, 2017

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd



      For further information, please contact either Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      email: charles@pobjoy.com or Juliet Warner email: jwarner@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com

























    • Penguins, Predators & Prey
    • Penguins, Predators & Prey
    • Falkland Islands - Magellanic Penguins, Predators and Prey


      Penguins, Predators and Prey is a series of stamp issues depicting each of the familiar Falkland penguins, together with some of their respective predators and prey. This issue features the Magellanic Penguin.


      The Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus is one of the five species which breed in the Falkland Islands. They are medium-sized penguins which grow to 70cm tall and weigh about 4 kilos. The males are slightly larger than the females. They can live up to 25 years in the wild.


      Magellanic Penguins are the most numerous of the Spheniscus penguins, a genus which includes the African, the Humboldt and the Galapagos species. They breed along the coasts of Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. The world population is estimated to be approaching 2 million pairs with around 5% breeding in the Falklands. During the winter they are pelagic and can be seen as far north as Rio de Janiero.


      Magellanic Penguins were first encountered by Europeans about 600 miles north of the Falklands during Ferdinand Magellan’s ill-fated voyage of circumnavigation in 1520. Magellan referred to them as “Black Geese” and noted, with culinary precision, that they had to be skinned rather than plucked. In 1578, Sir Francis Drake’s crew clubbed 3000 for provisions in one day on Penguin Island, off the coast of Patagonia. In 1592, after discovering the Falklands, John Davis sailed the Desire to the same island. They filled the ship’s stores with 14000 salted down but insufficiently dried penguins reckoning that 4 men would eat 5 birds per day during the voyage home. As the ship became becalmed under the tropical sun, and with only stagnant water to drink and no fresh greens, the penguins took their revenge. The carcasses went rotten. Swarming maggots began to eat everything including the ships timbers and even the men themselves. Only 16 of the original crew of 76 survived to tell the tale as the vessel reached Berehaven in Bantry Bay. They were carried ashore by townsfolk as the tiny harbour filled with the stench of putrefying penguins.


      In the Falklands, this species is affectionately known as the “Jackass” penguin because its loud and oft repeated spring song is reminiscent of the hee-hawing of a donkey.


      The cover illustration shows a Magellanic penguin underwater. All penguins are flightless seabirds and hunt for food under the waves. Their bodies are heavy and muscular and their wing bones are fused together as wings take on the role of paddles. Their tails act as rudders to steer them through the water.



      30p Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus at the entrance to its breeding burrow


      In the Falklands, Magellanic Penguins breed in individual underground burrows up to 5 metres long which they dig in the peaty soil. They are particularly fond of tussac islands but are also common in other areas where tussac is absent. They are colonial nesters and often form quite large though loose assemblages. “Jackasses” are the only Falkland species to nest in burrows. This has the obvious advantages of protecting the eggs and young from aerial predators but there is a risk from flooding during rainstorms. Both birds and burrows can become infested with “Jackass” fleas. Magellanic penguins return from their winter pelagic wanderings in September. Males appear first to reclaim and clean out their burrows. Females are able to recognize their mates through their call alone and often mate with the same partner each year. Two eggs are laid in mid to late October. Incubation lasts about 40 days after which the chicks are fed and cared for by their parents for about a month. Individual birds can forage up to 500 km from the nest site although, during the chick rearing stage, the parents generally remain within 30 km. Following the breeding season the penguins go to sea to fatten up in preparation for the annual moult for which they gather silently along favoured beaches in February. By mid-April they have returned to the ocean for the austral winter.



      75p Falkland Sprat Sprattus fuegensis


      Magellanic penguins are opportunistic feeders, taking roughly equal proportions of fish, squid and crustaceans. During chick-rearing, foraging trips take place on a daily basis during daylight hours. Birds generally hunt at depths of less than 50m, but may dive up to 100m. One of the more common prey species is the Falkland Sprat or Fuegian Sardine Sprattus fuegensis. This a small fish about 150mm in length which breeds in spring and early summer in the coastal shelf waters around the Falkland Islands and feeds on copepods, euphausiids, mysids, pelagic amphipods, chaetognaths, eggs and fish larvae. Large numbers appear close inshore during the summer making them ideal prey for penguins. The maximum recorded age is five years. The Falkland Sprat also lives along the Patagonian coast between 43° 30'N and 55° S.


      £1 Falkland Skua Catharacta antarctica


      Magellanic penguins encounter a number of predators at sea such as sea lions, leopard seals and orcas. They also face predation of chicks and eggs by avian predators such as caracaras, gulls and skuas although, by nesting in burrows, such predation is greatly reduced. The Falkland Skua is amongst the fastest and most skilled of all the flying birds. Add to that power and strength, high intelligence and longevity and the penguins have a formidable foe. Skuas are quick to spot any weak or infirm “Jackasses” and often attack them in mobs. Being without the claws and hooked beaks of hawks, skuas have to rely on each other to take hold of different parts of their prey in order to tear it apart. Falkland Skuas are entirely pelagic during the southern winter and come ashore in the Falklands only between October and April. The illustration shows part of their distinctive “courtship walk”. They nest in loose colonies, often close to their prey which, in addition to Magellanic Penguins, also includes other penguins and prions. They also specialize in harrying and forcing shags to re-gorge their food in flight over the ocean.


      £1.20 Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus performing “ecstatic" display


      Breeding Magellanic Penguins are often seen stretching skyward and calling in what is termed the “ecstatic” display. Males will perform this in the spring to attract a mate. Once paired up, a male and female will often display simultaneously to strengthen the bond between them. Each bird sings loudly while they perform. These rituals convey territorial, sexual and identification information both to each other and to other members of the colony. They are often enacted as a pair bonding exercise after a skirmish with a predator or a rival. Such displays continue throughout the breeding season and in particular in the evening when the adults return to the nesting burrow from the sea. To experience a calm summer evening close to a “Jackass” colony, with the air full of penguin song, is amongst the most magical of Falkland experiences.

      Liner written by Tony Chater.

      Technical details:

      Technical details:

      Artist: Tony Chater

      Printer: BDT International Security Printing

      Process: Lithography

      Perforation: 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size: 30.56 x 38mm

      Sheet Layout: 50 (2 x 25)

      Release date: 21 August, 2015

      Production Co-ordination: Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd





    • Wrecks
    • Wrecks
    • Falkland Islands Wrecks Part 1


      The extraordinary voyages of 16th century seafarers transformed history as newly-developed deep water sailing ships, equipped with the mariner’s compass, enabled Europeans to venture beyond the horizon and scour the oceans for new land, dreams and gold. During one such voyage in 1592, to the Magellan Straits, the little recognized but most accomplished navigator, John Davis, in his ship, Desire, was storm-blown under bare poles amongst these apparently unknown and unpeopled islands. But it is likely that the archipelago had been quietly known about for years by the major sea powers, as an ill-defined cluster of blobs appear, vaguely positioned near the eastern end of the Magellan Strait, on maps from 1507 onwards. Amerigo Vespucci may well have seen them from the deck of a Portuguese ship as early as 1502.


      The 700 islands, islets, rocks and reefs which comprise the Falklands are situated some 315 nautical miles down-wind and down-stream from Cape Horn. Battered by frequent gales and surrounded by strong currents, the Islands have always provided both peril and sanctuary for the seafarer. Over 180 ships are known to have met their end in the wild seas which surround the Falklands. Without doubt there will have been others which sank without trace.


      During the 1850’s there was a sudden upsurge in sea-borne traffic around Cape Horn. Vessels trading in Californian and Australian gold, Chilean copper and Peruvian guano began calling into Stanley for repair and provisions. The nearest alternative port was Montevideo a thousand miles to the north. Some ships attempting to round the Horn were overloaded, some unseaworthy, and others simply unlucky. Many suffered severe battering and, riding the prevailing westerlies, limped back into harbour to lick their wounds. A few lame ducks never recovered. Others were deliberately wrecked and their cargoes sold by unscrupulous dealers. The growing port gained a notorious reputation and a flock of worn-out windjammers. Several are still stuck in the Stanley harbour mud. But time and tide and two pernicious sea worms, the teredo and the gribble, have hastened their demise and in many cases their crumbling woodwork has all but disappeared.


      This issue depicts some of those vessels which finished their days beached along the Falklands’ shorelines. They remain an integral part of the Islands’ history and a reminder of the salty men who sailed in them.


      Charles Cooper


      Built by William Hall of Black Rock, Connecticut and launched on 11th November 1856, the 850 ton fully-rigged ship Charles Cooper was a fine example of American deep-water, wooden, merchant ship-building. She was built as a packet ship – the packets being vessels that ran to a fixed schedule, rather than sailing only when full. She would have been able to carry more than 250 passengers and 3,500 barrels of cargo. During her first voyage from New York – Antwerp – New York her mixed cargo included tobacco, flour, cotton, rice, resin, coffee, lard, codfish, beeswax, mahogany and logwood. On 1st June 1866, the “Cooper” set sail from Philadelphia. Bound for San Francisco with a cargo of coal, she encountered bad weather rounding Cape Horn and limped into Stanley Harbour on 25th September of the same year. Her condition was described in the Colonial Shipping Register as being “leaky and in need of repairs”. She was condemned as unseaworthy and never sailed again. The Charles Cooper was sold for use as a storage hulk and was grounded alongside the Acteon at the now defunct West Jetty where she served as a warehouse until the 1960s. In 1968 the “Cooper” was bought by South Street Seaport Museum of New York who hoped to transport the ship “home”. When it became evident that this would be too expensive, the ship was returned to Falklands ownership and eventually given into the care of the Museum. In 2003 a small local team removed the rotting remains of the hulk of the Charles Cooper from Stanley Harbour as she was deemed a hazard to shipping. At the present time she rests onshore close to the Airport Road to the east of Stanley.


      Acteon


      The 561-ton Canadian barque Acteon arrived on 22nd January 1853 under the command of Captain Robertson. 156 days out from Liverpool and bound for San Francisco laden with coal, she put back into Stanley after failing to round Cape Horn and was subsequently scuttled after survey.


      Capricorn

      The bones of the 390-ton wooden barque Capricorn are still visible close to site of the old Beaver floatplane hangar along Ross Road West in Stanley. She was built in Swansea for the copper ore trade in 1859. In February 1882, outbound from South Wales, her cargo of coal ignited in heavy weather off Cape Horn. She hastened to Staten Island where she was scuttled in shallow water to dowse the blaze. After being pumped out and re-floated she made sail for Stanley whereupon she was condemned as unseaworthy. She gained various employments as a lighter, storage hulk and finally a jetty head for the military garrison during the Second World War. Capricorn was stripped for firewood in 1948. At 157 years of age she continues to earn her keep as a part-time tourist attraction.


      Afterglow


      The Afterglow was a steam drifter in Lowestoft in 1918. She arrived in the Islands in 1921 as a fur seal rookery protection vessel. From 1927-38 she became the Port Richards and was used as a sealer. She reverted back to her maiden name and became HMS Afterglow when she was requisitioned by the Royal Navy as an armed patrol vessel in 1940. HMS Afterglow sustained damage in the shallow and treacherous Reef Channel at Saunders Island and, as a consequence, was laid up in Stanley Harbour. Finally she dragged ashore in a gale. Her remains can today be seen on the beach close to the Stanley Market Garden.

      Text by Tony Chater.


      Technical details:-

      Photography Tony Chater

      Printer Cartor Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 13 ¼ x 13 per 2 cms

      Stamp size 38 x 30.6mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 27 March, 2017

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd



    • Wrecks Part 2
    • Wrecks Part 2
    • Wrecks Part II


      The extraordinary voyages of 16th century seafarers transformed history as newly-developed deep-water sailing ships, equipped with the mariner’s compass, enabled Europeans to venture beyond the horizon and scour the oceans for new land, dreams and gold. During one such voyage in 1592, to the Magellan Straits, the little recognized but most accomplished navigator, John Davis, in his ship, Desire, was storm-blown under bare poles amongst these apparently unknown and unpeopled islands. But it is likely that the archipelago had been quietly known about for years by the major sea powers, as an ill-defined cluster of blobs appear, vaguely positioned near the eastern end of the Magellan Strait, on maps from 1507 onwards. Amerigo Vespucci may well have seen them from the deck of a Portuguese ship as early as 1502.


      The 700 islands, islets, rocks and reefs which comprise the Falklands are situated some 315 nautical miles down-wind and down-stream from Cape Horn. Battered by frequent gales and surrounded by strong currents, the Islands have always provided both peril and sanctuary for the seafarer. Over 180 ships are known to have met their end in the wild seas which surround the Falklands. Without doubt there will have been others which sank without trace.


      During the 1850’s there was a sudden upsurge in sea-borne traffic around Cape Horn. Vessels trading in Californian and Australian gold, Chilean copper and Peruvian guano began calling into Stanley for repair and provisions. The nearest alternative port was Montevideo a thousand miles to the north. Some ships attempting to round the Horn were overloaded, some unseaworthy, and others simply unlucky. Many suffered severe battering and, riding the prevailing westerlies, limped back into harbour to lick their wounds. A few lame ducks never recovered. Others were deliberately wrecked and their cargoes sold by unscrupulous dealers. The growing port gained a notorious reputation and a flock of worn-out windjammers. Several are still stuck in the Stanley harbour mud. But time and tide and two pernicious sea worms, the teredo and the gribble, have hastened their demise and in many cases their crumbling woodwork has all but disappeared.


      This issue, the second in the Shipwrecks series, depicts some of those vessels which finished their days beached along the Falklands’ shorelines. They remain an integral part of the Islands’ history and a reminder of the salty men who sailed in them.


      Glengowan

      Glengowan was built of steel in Glasgow in 1895. Two months out on a maiden voyage from Swansea to San Francisco via Cape Horn, her cargo of coal became dangerously overheated and she made for Port Stanley. She caught fire in Port William, was scuttled, and remained as a burned-out hulk in Whalebone Cove for a decade. In 1910 she was purchased by the New Whaling Company and towed to New Island to be used as storage. She later broke her moorings in a gale and now rests on a rocky shoreline close to the present-day settlement.



      Jhelum

      The 428-ton, three-masted barque, Jhelum, was launched on 24th May 1849. During her working life she completed 18 voyages, mainly between Europe and South America. Under the command of Captain James Beaglehole, she departed Callao on the return leg of her final voyage on 12th July 1870, bound for Dunkirk with a cargo of Peruvian guano from the Guanape Islands. Thirty-eight days out, and following a rough passage, she put into Stanley “leaky with jettison”. Her crew refused to continue and, following a survey, Jhelum was condemned and never sailed again. In recent years her remains were the most intact among the remarkable but fast decaying collection of 19th century wooden sailing ships which once decorated the fringes of Stanley Harbour. During a winter storm in October 2008 the bow finally collapsed. The stern followed suit in August 2013. All that remains today is part of the vessel’s midsection.


      Golden Chance

      Golden Chance was a 90 ton Lowestoft steam drifter. She was launched in 1914. During the 2nd World War she worked as a barrage balloon boat. After failing the Board of Trade standards she was purchased by the Colonial Development Corporation and set off for the Falklands in August 1949. She eventually made it down but only after steel reinforcing in Montevideo prevented her from possibly breaking up on the high seas. For much of the voyage she was towed by the Protector 3, which now lies on the beach at New Island. Golden Chance worked as a sealer for three years at Albemarle in West Falkland but was eventually pensioned off and now lies beached at the Canache at the east end of Stanley Harbour.


      Lady Elizabeth

      The “Lady Liz”, as she is affectionately known, sits cradled in sand at Whalebone Cove. Amongst Stanley’s assortment of dead sailing ships, she alone retains her masts and her grandeur. A 223ft iron barque, built in Sunderland in 1879, she made several visits to the Falklands during the course of her working life. On one voyage, in 1899, she brought bricks and cement for the new Cathedral and wood for the rival Tabernacle. In December 1912, under Captain Petersen, Lady Elizabeth departed Vancouver with a cargo of Oregon pine, bound for Delagoa Bay in Mozambique by way of Cape Horn. It was to be her final voyage. Severely battered by gales some 300 miles to the west of the Cape, and with her deck cargo and four men washed overboard, she put into Berkeley Sound on 12th March 1913. At the northern entrance she struck the Uranie Rock, was holed, and lost a section of keel. Three days later she was towed into Stanley by the tug, Samson, for repairs. But Lady Elizabeth was never to sail again. Instead, she was condemned and, together with her valuable cargo, sold to the Falkland Islands Company for just £3350. Stripped to bare essentials, she became a floating warehouse for the following two decades. During a gale, on 17th February 1936, the old lady broke free of her moorings and drifted to her present position close to Stanley Airport.


      Text by Tony Chater.


      Technical Details:-

      Photography Tony Chater

      Printer Cartor Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 13 x 13 ¼ per 2 cms

      Stamp size 30.6 x 38mm

      Sheet layout 10

      Release date 2 March, 2018

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd



      For further information, please contact either Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      email: charles@pobjoy.com or Juliet Warner email: jwarner@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com