Falkland Islands

NEW ISSUE FOR FALKLAND ISLANDS......... "WRECKS" which will be released on 27th March 2017.  See under pre-order tab for details.

    • 20th Anniversary of the ESRG
    • 20th Anniversary of the ESRG
    • The Falkland Islands - 20th Anniversary of the Elephant Seal Research Group


      The southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) is a charismatic top-predator of the southern oceans with a very peculiar life style. Elephant seals have a circum-Antarctic distribution, with three main stocks: South Georgia, Macquarie Island, and Kerguelen Islands. The Falkland Islands population of elephant seals belong to the South Georgia stock.


      In historical times, elephant seals were distributed all over the Falklands, but they were almost taken to extinction by the indiscriminate commercial sealing that happened during the 1800s and early 1900s. Currently there is a main breeding colony at Sea Lion Island (approximately 620 breeding females), plus small colonies on other islands and along the coastline of East Falkland. In recent years, elephant seals have increased in number at Sea Lion Island, and possibly in other breeding colonies.


      Elephant seals have a mixed life style, and they spend two phases of their annual cycle on land, during the breeding and the moulting, and two phases at sea, for the post-breeding and post-moulting feeding migrations. When they are at sea, elephant seals are solitary, and spend most of their time diving to get food. Usually, they do not haul out during the aquatic phases, and they spend months at sea diving without rest. Elephant seals from Sea Lion Island forage mostly close to the breeding colony and the Falklands coastline, on the continental shelf, and over rather shallow waters. Apparently these seals are able to get good food resources close to their haul out sites, avoiding the very long feeding migrations that are typical of other elephant seal populations.


      When they are on land elephant seals are very gregarious. During the breeding season females aggregate in harems, and each harem usually has a large male in charge, the harem holder. Males begin to haul out for the breeding in late August, with the oldest ones coming first. Males define dominance relationships by vocal threats, visual displays, and all-out fights. The most dominant males get control of harems, do most copulations, and sire most pups. A successful breeding male can sire more than one hundred pups per season!


      Females begin to haul out during the first week of September, get to peak number on land around mid-October, and by mid-November most of them are already back to sea. Each female usually stays on land 3-6 days before giving birth to a single pup, suckles it for about 23 days, copulates, and returns to sea for feeding. When she goes back to sea, the pup is abruptly weaned. Pups are about 40-45 kg at birth, and they grow very fast, getting to an average weight of about 135-140 kg at weaning, with some of them weighing more than 200 Kg !!! Weaned pups stay on land for about 6 weeks before going to sea for their first feeding trip, that is a pretty risky business, because a large percentage dies and never returns to land again.


      While just the breeders haul out during the breeding season, all individuals, of all age classes, need to haul out for the moult, to shed the old fur and skin. Young individuals moult first, in November and December, followed by juvenile males and breeding females, most of which moult in January, while the older sub-adult males and the adult ones moult in February and March.


      The elephant seals have a rich social behaviour, in which communication has a very important role. Males vocalize to communicate their size, age, and stamina, and settle dominance contests without fights. Mothers and pups vocalize to recognize each other and establish the mother-pup bond that is essential for the development of the pups.


      The Elephant Seal Research Group studied elephant seals at Sea Lion Island during the past twenty years, making it the longest running scientific study of mammals on the Falklands. Our research is focused on the individual survival and breeding strategies. Therefore, we mark each seal at birth and weaning with cattle tags. Those tags, that have a rather low loss rate, permit us to follow up each seal along its whole lifespan. We have lifetime information on thousands of females and hundreds of males. Long-term studies such as ours are invaluable because they permit the assessment of the complex interplay between the individual phenotype, the demography and socionomy of the population, environmental stressors like climate change, and disturbance due to human activities. Apart from collecting basic information about the seals by counts, individual identification, and observation of behaviour, we use a lot of techniques to obtain data about the phenotype, the social system, and the local environment. For example, we are using photogrammetry to estimate size of males, that are very large, we are mapping the seals using GPS and laser telemetry, we are deploying data loggers on the breeding and moulting beaches to assess the effect of micro-climate on seal behaviour, and we are studying the effect of killer whale predation on the seals demography. For further information about the ESRG research project please have a look at the research team website, www.eleseal.org.


      Technical details:

      Photographs Elephant Seal Research Group

      Layout Bee Design

      Printer Cartor Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 13 ¼ x 13 per 2cms

      Stamp size 38 x 30.6mm

      Sheet Layout 10 (5 se-tenant pairs)

      Release date 30 November, 2015

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd






    • 90 Years of Style
    • 90 Years of Style
    • Falkland Islands - 90 Years of Style


      The Falkland Islands Post Office is delighted to celebrate the 90th Birthday of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II on 21 April 2016 with the release of 4 stamps and a souvenir sheet.


      Her Majesty celebrates two birthdays each year, her actual birthday and her official birthday on a Saturday in June. Official celebrations to mark a Sovereign’s birthday have often been held on another day in the summer to ensure good weather for the ‘Trooping the Colour’ Parade, also known as the Birthday Parade.


      The Queen usually spends her actual birthday privately, but as 2016 is such a milestone birthday The Queen and Members of the Royal Family will attend a pageant celebrating The Queen’s life to be held at Home Park in Windsor Castle in May, a thanksgiving service held at St Paul’s Cathedral on 10 June as well as the Queen’s Birthday Parade on Horse Guards Parade on 11 June.


      Last year Her Majesty became Britain’s longest reigning monarch and both as Princess and Queen she has presented the world with 90 Years of Style.


      During the war and post war years when austerity and rationing lingered across the land she was famously thrifty, wearing hand-me-downs, her mother’s re-worked clothes and off the peg outfits. One of her most famous outfits was of course the dress for her wedding in 1947. This wedding was perhaps the start of royal wedding fever, yet just like everyone else in 1947 the Princess Elizabeth had to fund the material for the dress with clothing ration coupons, although the Government kindly allowed her 200 extra coupons! Famously, people sent in their own coupons to help the Princess out, but they were sent back with a note of thanks as it was illegal for her to use them.


      Happily times improved and mostly she has worn couture. The years of immaculate style demonstrate that whilst Her Majesty may not be interested in high fashion she is most certainly interested in clothes and impeccable style.


      In June 1953, 27 year-old Princess Elizabeth ascended to the throne and became the Queen of England and ruler of much of the free world. With the help of two couturiers in particular, Sir Norman Hartnell and Sir Hardy Amies, her wardrobe conveyed an image of a stately world leader. At the time she favoured fairy-tale ball-gowns, or stiff satin frocks, shimmering with beads in patterns designed to emphasise her status. Norman Hartnell, a favourite of her mother and grandmother, created both her wedding dress and her Coronation gown. He specialised in the fabulous evening-gowns that she wore to glamourous state occasions, while Amies primarily took care of Her Majesty's daytime wardrobe.


      In 1953 Her Majesty embarked on her first tour of the Commonwealth and took with her more than 100 specially made outfits. Since then she has made hundreds of Commonwealth and State visits. The Queen requires more clothes in a year than most of us do in a lifetime and four or five changes in a day are not unusual.


      To this day the Queen remains the centre of attention wherever she goes and is subject to critical assessment every time she appears in public. The pressure of such scrutiny must be phenomenal yet there has never been a wardrobe malfunction nor a fashion faux pas. Her impeccable style has ensured her place as an icon of fashion.


      31p The Queen steps gamely into a puddle during her visit to New Zealand, 1977. Tim Graham/gettyimages.


      76p The Queen in the Solomon Islands during a tour of the South Pacific in 1982.

      Anwar Hussein/gettyimages.


      £1.01 The Queen wearing a gown designed by Norman Hartnell for her Coronation ceremony, 1953. Central Press/gettyimages.


      £1.22 The Queen walks through a poppy field art installation entitled 'Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red' in the moat of the Tower of London, to commemorate the First World War on October 16, 2014. By its completion on Armistice Day 2014 the moat contained 888,246 ceramic poppies, one for each British and Colonial fatality during World War One. Max Mumby/Indigo/gettyimages.


      S/S Border: The Queen attending a banquet as guest of The States of Guernsey wearing a dress designed by Sir Hardy Amies. Tim Graham/gettyimages.


      S/S Stamp: The Queen during a visit to the Rollshill Maternity Hospital in Glasgow 1962. Ray Bellisario/Popperfoto/gettyimages.


      FDC The Norman Hartnell drawing on the First Day Cover was for Princess Elizabeth’s “Going Away Hat”. Arthur Tanner/gettyimages.


      Technical details:-

      Designer Bee Design

      Photography See text

      Printer BDT International Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 28.45 x 42.58mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 21 April, 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com

    • Birds of Prey
    • Birds of Prey
    • The Falkland Islands - Birds of Prey


      Birds of prey are also termed “raptors”, derived from the Latin rapere, meaning to take or seize by force. They are characterised by sharply curved bills, powerful feet with large talons, exceptional eyesight in diurnal species and specially adapted hearing in nocturnal species.


      The Falkland Islands has seven species of raptor: six of these are represented in this issue; the seventh is the Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura falklandica, a New World vulture.


      31p Barn Owl Tyto a. tuidara

      The Barn owl is a nocturnal bird of prey which utilises special adaptations in its hearing to locate its prey in the dark. Asymmetrically placed ear openings mean that sound reaches one ear slightly before it reaches the other, allowing the owl to pinpoint where the sound is coming from, without needing to see the prey. The shape of the bird’s facial disc effectively funnels sound towards the ear openings, and the Barn owl, like other owls, has exceptionally soft feathers with a special comb-like edge to allow completely silent flight. In the Falkland Islands, the main prey species of the Barn owl is the House mouse, but rats also make up a percentage of their diet.


      Found in every continent except Antarctica, there are approximately 35 different races of the Barn owl recognised across the globe.


      31p Short-eared Owl Asio f. sanfordi

      The Short-eared owl is a striking-looking owl with bright yellow eyes. A partly diurnal species that usually inhabits dense stands of grass such as Tussock, Cinnamon or Blue Couch in the Falklands, this owl makes its nest on the ground. Like the Barn owl, the Short-eared owl also preys upon mice and rats, but may take small rabbits or birds if given the opportunity. The Short-eared owl possesses the same special adaptations for hunting in the dark as the Barn owl, but has larger feet and talons for handling slightly larger prey. Owls usually swallow their prey whole.


      On New Island, where this photo was taken, Short-eared owls are rare, possibly due to the very large population of Striated caracara, a potential predator, which breed there.


      76p Red-backed Buzzard Buteo polyosoma

      The Red-backed buzzard is also known as the Variable hawk, due to its individual variation in plumage. Young birds can range from a dark chocolate with bright yellow legs and cere, to russet red, to very pale and mottled. Adult females usually have a white breast and a blue-grey head, with rusty red plumage on their backs, (giving the species its name), whereas adult males are usually white with a blue-grey back and head.


      A diurnal bird of prey and the only buzzard species found in the Falkland Islands, the Red-backed buzzard prefers to hunt small, mammalian prey such as mice, rats and rabbits. Like all raptors, the buzzard uses its powerful feet and sharp talons to catch and immobilise its prey. Unlike the nocturnal hunters, diurnal raptors use their exceptional eyesight for locating the prey; a buzzard’s visual acuity may be 6 to 8 times better than ours.


      76p Crested Caracara Polyborus p. plancus

      The largest of the Falkland Islands’ birds of prey, the Crested caracara, also locally known as the ‘Carancho’, is a close relative of the much bolder, Striated caracara. Quite different in character, behaviour and appearance from the Striated, the Crested caracara is slowly becoming more common and widespread in the Islands, although it is a shy species and susceptible to disturbance. This species usually prefers low, rocky cliffs for a breeding site, but it will also take advantage of large trees where it will build a substantial nest of twigs.


      On New Island, where this photo was taken, the Carancho preys mainly on rabbits and Thin-billed prions, but will readily scavenge for carrion.


      £1.01 Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus cassini

      Known as the fastest creature in the animal kingdom, the Peregrine falcon is an incredible aerial hunter, capable of reaching speeds of up to 200mph in a stoop or dive. This falcon mainly hunts birds, perfectly able to take species as large as a Patagonian Crested duck, but more commonly hunting small petrel species, or passerines such as the Falkland thrush. Usually the impact of the strike from a Peregrine would be sufficient to kill its prey, but this species also possesses very powerful talons with enormous crushing power.


      Quite an elusive falcon, the Peregrine usually nests on precipitous cliffs, well out of sight. They are, however, quite vocal when defending their territory from unwanted visitors such as buzzards, and the fledged young can quite readily be seen as they practice their hunting skills at the end of the breeding season.


      £1.22 Striated Caracara Phalcoboenus australis

      The Striated caracara, more commonly referred to as ‘Johnny rook’ in the Falklands, is probably our best-known bird of prey. The Falkland Islands supports the World’s largest population of this characterful bird, which is actually a rare member of the falcon family.


      An extremely bold and curious bird by nature, the Striated caracara utilises these unique characteristics in its pursuit for prey, with young birds often forming a ‘gang’ and taking on a pack mentality for hunting. Adult caracaras are extremely proficient hunters and although they are perfectly skilled in the air, they usually take their prey on the ground and can often be observed running; not a typical raptor characteristic! On New Island, Striated caracaras feed almost exclusively on Thin-billed prions and the eggs and chicks of Rockhopper and Gentoo penguins, but this species is an opportunist and will take a huge variety of prey and carrion.


      Technical details:

      Designer & Photography Georgina Strange

      Printer BDT International Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 30.56 x 38mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 13 January, 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd




    • Britains Longest Reigning Monarch
    • Britains Longest Reigning Monarch
    • Falkland Islands - HM Queen Elizabeth II: Britain’s Longest Reigning Monarch


      On 9th September 2015, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II becomes the longest reigning Monarch in British history, surpassing the reign of her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria.


      To celebrate this extraordinary milestone The Falkland Islands are proud to release this special new issue as part of a series together with Ascension Island, Bahamas, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and Tristan da Cunha.


      Queen Victoria came to the throne aged 18 and died in 1901 when she was 81, an incredible reign of 63 years and 216 days (23,226 days, 16 hours and 23 minutes) that defined an era and a people. In her journal Victoria recorded that “Today is the day I have reigned longer, by a day, than any English sovereign”. The Victorians responded enthusiastically to her historic milestone yet, like our current Queen, Victoria did not encourage any celebrations ahead of the day.


      Yet for Queen Elizabeth II to become the longest reigning of the forty-one kings and queens of England since the Norman Conquest is without doubt an historic achievement. Like Victoria, Elizabeth II is much loved and during a lifetime of service has provided a reassuring and enduring source of stability in a fast and ever changing world.


      Elizabeth’s reign has seen more developments, achievements and records than any other. According to Guinness World Records she holds the world record for the most currencies featuring the same individual. Her Diamond Jubilee river pageant in 2012 set a new world record for the number of boats in a parade. She was the first British monarch to have sent an email, to have a message placed on the moon, to have conducted a royal 'walkabout' and to have held a public concert in her back garden.


      This series of postage stamps depict Her Majesty since her coronation with many familiar and iconic images from her reign.


      30p Her Majesty is shown against coronation publications from 1953. The portrait of Her Majesty was taken by Lord Snowdon. (Photo by ullstein bild/ullstein bild via Getty Images).


      75p The first Land Rovers arrived in the Falklands in the 1950’s. Government records from 1951 show that the first, Registration Number 168, belonged to the Falkland Islands Company. With no roads outside Stanley the introduction of the Land Rovers made life much easier. Even the Dentist (with his treadle operated drill) and the Doctor had to travel by horse until the Rovers arrived. The Falkland Islands are home to the southernmost official Land Rover dealership in the world. The portrait of her Majesty (often seen driving Land Rovers herself over the years) shows her wearing her coronation crown, in 1953. Known as the St Edward's Crown, it was made in 1661 for the coronation of King Charles II, and is reputed to contain gold from the crown of Edward the Confessor. It is set with 444 precious stones. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images).


      £1 The Gold State Coach was built in the London workshops of Samuel Butler in 1762. It was commissioned for £7,562. It has been used at the coronation of every British Monarch since George IV. The coach's great age, weight, and lack of manoeuvrability have limited its use to grand state occasions such as coronations, royal weddings, and the jubilees of a monarch. It has not been a popular coach with the various monarchs, King George VI describing his coronation journey as "one of the most uncomfortable rides I have ever had in my life”. The portrait of Her Majesty was taken as she arrived at the Palace of Westminster the State Opening of Parliament in 2002. (Photo by Tim Graham Picture Library/Getty Images).





      £1.25 In 2013 the Falkland Islands held a referendum to gauge public support for the question "Do you wish the Falkland Islands to retain their current political status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom?". With a turnout of more than 90% of eligible voters just 3 votes were against, perhaps favouring the notion of complete Independence for the islands. The portrait of Her Majesty was taken as she watched a riding display at the Ebony Horse Club and Community Riding Centre in 2013. (Photo by Max Mumby/Indigo/Getty Images).



      Technical details:-

      Designer Andrew Robinson

      Printer BDT International

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2 cms

      Stamp size 28.45 x 42.58mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 9 September, 2015

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd



    • Clouds
    • Clouds
    • Falkland Islands – Clouds


      Clouds are a major feature of Falkland Islands weather. Influenced by the predominantly westerly winds which arise on the South American Continent together with the effects of the Andes, cloud forms are varied and extensive. Clouds are further modified by the Island terrain to form “mountain modifications” which develop from the higher elevations, “Roll cloud” at low levels, particularly in northerly winds forming behind the Wickham Heights and Cumulonimbus which generally form in southerly winds.


      In this four stamp issue three of the more common cloud forms to be seen in the Falkland Islands are depicted: Altocumulus on the 76p value, Altocumulus lenticularis on the £1.01 value and Cumulonimbus and Stratocumulus on the £1.22 value.


      The 31p value shows a rare form of cloud called asperitas (latin for “roughness”). Cloud watchers have been reporting these oddly shaped clouds for several years and due to the efforts of the Cloud Appreciation Society over many years it is expected that this new cloud type will finally be getting official recognition. This year the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) proposed a definition for the clouds. “A formation made up of well-defined, wavelike structures in the underside of the cloud, more chaotic and with less horizontal organization than undulatus. It is characterised by localized waves in the cloud base, either smooth or dappled with smaller features, sometimes descending into sharp points, as if viewing a roughened sea surface from below. Varying levels of illumination and thickness of cloud can lead to dramatic visual effects”.


      It is hoped that the WMO will include asperitas in its revised 2016 International Cloud Atlas making it the first new cloud type identified since 1951. The inclusion of this rare cloud in this issue from the Falkland Islands is therefore both significant and timely.


      The issue also features Luke Howard, who became known as the “Namer of Clouds”, on the First Day Cover. He was born in London on the 28 November 1772, was educated at a Quaker school in Burford Oxfordshire and was then apprenticed to a retail chemist in Stockport. He became like his father a businessman developing a firm that manufactured pharmaceutical chemicals. His real interest was however in meteorology and he made a number of contributions to the subject.


      The most significant of these was his 1802 paper entitled “On the modification of clouds”

      ('modification' meaning 'classification'). In this paper he proposed a number of cloud names which are still in use today. Howard introduced three basic cloud types some examples of which appear in this stamp issue.


      • Cirrus (Latin for a curl of hair)

      • Cumulus (meaning heap) a form depicted on the 76p value

      • Stratus (meaning something spread)


      He combined these names to form four more cloud types:


      • Cirro-cumulus, which he described as “small well defined roundish masses, in close horizontal arrangement”

      • Cirro-stratus

      • Cumulostratus

      • Cumulo-cirro-stratus or Nimbus which he called the rain cloud, a form of which is shown on the £1.22 value


      He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1821 and joined the British, (now Royal Meteorological Society) in 1850; a month after the society was founded. He died in London on the 21 March 1864.


      With thanks for the support of:

      Alistair Price, Mount Pleasant Met Office.

      The Cloud Appreciation Society.

      The Royal Meteorological Society, the UK’s Learned and Professional Society for weather and climate.



      Technical details:

      Designer Ian J. Strange

      Photography Georgina Strange and Ian J. Strange

      Image of Luke Howard Royal Meteorological Society

      Printer BDT International Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 51.46 x 30mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 9 December, 2015

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com




    • Endemic Plants
    • Endemic Plants
    • The Falkland Islands - Celebrating the Endemic Flora of the Falkland Islands


      The Falkland Islands are a remote archipelago situated in the South Atlantic, some 500 km from mainland South America. The Islands experience a cool temperate oceanic climate with a mean for January and July of c. 9°C and 2°C, respectively. With ground frost a possibility throughout the year, all seasons can be experienced in a day. Contrary to popular belief rainfall is low in the Islands with a mean annual precipitation of around 585 mm. The highest point on the Islands is Mt. Usborne on East Falkland, which stands at 705 m above sea level. Soils are generally characterised by a thin, peaty surface layer, usually no deeper than 40 cm, above poorly drained, silty-clay subsoil. Mineral soils are less common but do occur where underlying rocks are exposed, such as on mountain summits and along the coast. The main vegetation types supported are acid grasslands and dwarf shrub heathland. 181 plant taxa (including one hybrid) are native to the Falkland Islands with 14 of these being found nowhere else in the world – it is these endemic plants that we seek to celebrate through this unique stamp collection.


      31p

      Phlebolobium maclovianum

      Now considered rare, Falkland rock-cress Phlebolobium maclovianum was reported as ‘abundant on the sea coast’ by botanist Joseph Hooker when he visited the Islands in the 1800s. Hooker’s account provides evidence of a significant population reduction and there is observational evidence that grazing pressure has played a part in the decline of this crucifer as the largest known populations are found in ungrazed locations.


      31p

      Calceolaria fothergillii

      The charismatic Falkland Islands lady’s slipper Calceolaria fothergillii is so called because of the delicate shoe-like form of its flower’s enlarged lower lip. The intricate shape and patterning of the striking red and yellow flowers make it one of the most stunning to be seen in the Islands. This species can most frequently be found growing on coastal slopes within low-growing heathland. The white and fleshy bar folded against the outside of the lower flower lip is known to act as an edible reward to entice bird pollinators in Calceolaria fothergillii’s closest relative over in Patagonia. In the Falklands there is no record of removal of this appendage so intriguing questions remain over what pollinates C. fothergillii and whether the fleshy bar still plays a role in the process.


      76p

      Nastanthus falklandicus

      False-plantain Nastanthus falklandicus is one of the most range-restricted endemics found in the Falkland Islands, occurring only along the southwest coast of West Falkland and two nearby small Islands. It can be found growing in exposed, coastal sites on well-drained soils and has long taproots that make it ideally suited to such erosion-prone locations. In flower there is no mistaking N. falklandicus, as it bears a spectacular hemispherical cluster of tightly packed white flowers. It is not yet understood why this species is so limited in its distribution – just one of the many questions surrounding its ecology.


      76p

      Hamadryas argentea

      The large 3-lobed silvery leaves of the stunning silvery buttercup Hamadryas argentea make it difficult to confuse with any other plants currently growing in the wild in the Falklands. H. argentea has separate male and female plants and it has recently been noted that individual populations are often either one gender or the other. This is a worrying finding as H. argentea is classified as Near Threatened largely on the basis of its population size and this suggests that what we currently think of as ‘populations’ may just be one or two individuals that have spread vegetatively. The actual number of genetically distinct individuals across the Falklands may be drastically less than previously estimated.




      £1.01

      Nassauvia serpens

      Nowadays snakeplant Nassauvia serpens is found almost exclusively in stone runs and it was therefore previously thought that it had a strict requirement for this habitat. Surveys have since discovered that in the absence of grazing pressure, N. serpens can thrive in a range of other habitats close to running water or run-off.


      £1.01

      Nassauvia falklandica

      Falkland Nassauvia Nassauvia falklandica is the most recently described vascular plant species endemic to the Falkland Islands. Known only from upland sites in two hill ranges on West Falkland, its habit makes it look similar to a dwarf version of N. serpens; its flowerheads are similarly grouped into a globular clusters at the end of stems, however it reaches only about six centimetres in height. A key feature which distinguishes this species from all other Nassauvia species is the position of its breathing holes (known as ‘stomata’) to sunken hair-filled surfaces on the undersides of otherwise hairless leaves. The hairs create a still layer of air directly above the stomata, most likely helping to reduce water loss in the windy, exposed upland sites where N. falklandica grows.


      Text courtesy of Dr Rebecca Upson, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.


      Technical details:

      Designer Leigh-Anne Wolfaardt

      Printer BDT International Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 30.56 x 38mm

      Sheetlet size 170 x 140mm (6 x 66p)

      Sheet Layout 20 (2 x 10)

      Release date 21 November, 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact either Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      Email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com








    • Historic Dockyard Museum
    • Historic Dockyard Museum
    • Falkland Islands - Historic Dockyard Museum Issue


      The Falkland Islands Museum completed its relocation to the Historic Dockyard in September 2014 – the successful end to a project that had been in the making for a number of years.


      Five large galleries focus on the main themes of the museum – social history, maritime heritage, nature and wildlife, Antarctic connections and, of course, 1982. However, at its core the Dockyard is all about the people of the Falklands and the stories of the families that built the community is the common thread throughout the exhibitions.


      The complex also includes several outbuildings – the Smithy & Gearshed, the R/T & Telephone Exchange, the Printing Office, and the Wash-house.


      31p – Traditional Horse Gear

      The horse features strongly in Falklands’ history, playing an important role in all areas of life – central to leisure and sport as well as essential for farm-work and travel.


      Islanders generally made their gear (saddles, reins etc) by hand, using softened bullock and horse hide. Gear for daily use was practical and hard-wearing but quality was always important. Elaborately crafted pieces were a source of considerable pride and were sometimes given as wedding or special gifts.


      A lean-to on the blacksmith’s building houses a recreated gear-shed, packed with a wide variety of equipment and showcasing the traditional skill of gear-making.


      76p – Peat Burning Stove

      Until the late 1980s peat was burnt for both heating and cooking in homes throughout the Falklands, and the pleasant smell of burning peat was frequently remarked upon by visitors.


      The peat-stove was the heart of the home and is the focus of the little kitchen that is recreated in the museum, along with the ever-present peat-bucket and goosewing (literally the wing of an Upland Goose, used to sweep up peat dust and very useful for getting into small spaces).


      Social history is the heart of the museum and the peat-fired kitchen to some degree symbolizes the essence of Falklands’ culture.


      £1.01 – Warrah Skull

      The warrah was the Falklands only native land mammal – its existence in isolation on the Islands fascinated Charles Darwin and to this day remains something of an enigma.


      Darwin noted the warrah’s lack of fear of humans and predicted that it would become extinct once settlement was established. He was right, and the last known warrah was shot at Shallow Bay on West Falkland in 1876.


      Only a handful of warrah specimens exist worldwide and until recently there were no remains held in the Falklands. However, in 2010, Dale Evans (then 13 years old) discovered bones on his parents’ farm and DNA testing later confirmed these as warrah. Carbon-dating has shown that the bones are at least 1,000 years old, making them the oldest known remains of the species.






      £1.22 – Antarctic Exploration

      The Falkland Islands have long served as a gateway to the southern continent and this relationship is celebrated in the Antarctic gallery, the centerpiece of which is the Reclus Hut.


      The hut was prefabricated in Stanley and shipped to Portal Point on the Antarctic Peninsula where it was used as a refuge. In 1957/58, four men of the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS; later the British Antarctic Survey) spent nine months living in the hut. For the last month they were joined by men of a sledge party that had made the first crossing of the peninsula from Hope Bay. The Hope Bay team was led by Wally Herbert who would go on to become an internationally renowned Polar explorer.


      After a 1994 UK Antarctic Heritage Trust conservation survey, the hut was given to the Falklands museum.


      Grizelda Cockwell

      Local artist Grizelda Cockwell was invited to design the stamps as her strong style was well suited to the subject matter. This was her first time working on stamps:


      “I was so impressed by everything that had been achieved since the move into the Historic Dockyard site and was inspired to take the job on, although I had no idea what would be involved. It turned out to be a real challenge, but it was a most enjoyable one, mainly thanks to everyone in the Museum who were so helpful when I was prowling around taking photos, sketching things, moving stuff around, and generally being a nuisance.”


      Technical details:

      Artist: Grizelda Cockwell

      Printer: BDT International Security Printing

      Process: Lithography

      Perforation: 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size: 28.45 x 42.58mm

      Sheet Layout: 20 (2 x 10)

      Release date: 30 March, 2016

      Production Co-ordination: Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      Email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com


    • Penguins, Predators & Prey
    • Penguins, Predators & Prey
    • Falkland Islands - Magellanic Penguins, Predators and Prey


      Penguins, Predators and Prey is a series of stamp issues depicting each of the familiar Falkland penguins, together with some of their respective predators and prey. This issue features the Magellanic Penguin.


      The Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus is one of the five species which breed in the Falkland Islands. They are medium-sized penguins which grow to 70cm tall and weigh about 4 kilos. The males are slightly larger than the females. They can live up to 25 years in the wild.


      Magellanic Penguins are the most numerous of the Spheniscus penguins, a genus which includes the African, the Humboldt and the Galapagos species. They breed along the coasts of Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. The world population is estimated to be approaching 2 million pairs with around 5% breeding in the Falklands. During the winter they are pelagic and can be seen as far north as Rio de Janiero.


      Magellanic Penguins were first encountered by Europeans about 600 miles north of the Falklands during Ferdinand Magellan’s ill-fated voyage of circumnavigation in 1520. Magellan referred to them as “Black Geese” and noted, with culinary precision, that they had to be skinned rather than plucked. In 1578, Sir Francis Drake’s crew clubbed 3000 for provisions in one day on Penguin Island, off the coast of Patagonia. In 1592, after discovering the Falklands, John Davis sailed the Desire to the same island. They filled the ship’s stores with 14000 salted down but insufficiently dried penguins reckoning that 4 men would eat 5 birds per day during the voyage home. As the ship became becalmed under the tropical sun, and with only stagnant water to drink and no fresh greens, the penguins took their revenge. The carcasses went rotten. Swarming maggots began to eat everything including the ships timbers and even the men themselves. Only 16 of the original crew of 76 survived to tell the tale as the vessel reached Berehaven in Bantry Bay. They were carried ashore by townsfolk as the tiny harbour filled with the stench of putrefying penguins.


      In the Falklands, this species is affectionately known as the “Jackass” penguin because its loud and oft repeated spring song is reminiscent of the hee-hawing of a donkey.


      The cover illustration shows a Magellanic penguin underwater. All penguins are flightless seabirds and hunt for food under the waves. Their bodies are heavy and muscular and their wing bones are fused together as wings take on the role of paddles. Their tails act as rudders to steer them through the water.



      30p Magellanic Penguin Spheniscus magellanicus at the entrance to its breeding burrow


      In the Falklands, Magellanic Penguins breed in individual underground burrows up to 5 metres long which they dig in the peaty soil. They are particularly fond of tussac islands but are also common in other areas where tussac is absent. They are colonial nesters and often form quite large though loose assemblages. “Jackasses” are the only Falkland species to nest in burrows. This has the obvious advantages of protecting the eggs and young from aerial predators but there is a risk from flooding during rainstorms. Both birds and burrows can become infested with “Jackass” fleas. Magellanic penguins return from their winter pelagic wanderings in September. Males appear first to reclaim and clean out their burrows. Females are able to recognize their mates through their call alone and often mate with the same partner each year. Two eggs are laid in mid to late October. Incubation lasts about 40 days after which the chicks are fed and cared for by their parents for about a month. Individual birds can forage up to 500 km from the nest site although, during the chick rearing stage, the parents generally remain within 30 km. Following the breeding season the penguins go to sea to fatten up in preparation for the annual moult for which they gather silently along favoured beaches in February. By mid-April they have returned to the ocean for the austral winter.



      75p Falkland Sprat Sprattus fuegensis


      Magellanic penguins are opportunistic feeders, taking roughly equal proportions of fish, squid and crustaceans. During chick-rearing, foraging trips take place on a daily basis during daylight hours. Birds generally hunt at depths of less than 50m, but may dive up to 100m. One of the more common prey species is the Falkland Sprat or Fuegian Sardine Sprattus fuegensis. This a small fish about 150mm in length which breeds in spring and early summer in the coastal shelf waters around the Falkland Islands and feeds on copepods, euphausiids, mysids, pelagic amphipods, chaetognaths, eggs and fish larvae. Large numbers appear close inshore during the summer making them ideal prey for penguins. The maximum recorded age is five years. The Falkland Sprat also lives along the Patagonian coast between 43° 30'N and 55° S.


      £1 Falkland Skua Catharacta antarctica


      Magellanic penguins encounter a number of predators at sea such as sea lions, leopard seals and orcas. They also face predation of chicks and eggs by avian predators such as caracaras, gulls and skuas although, by nesting in burrows, such predation is greatly reduced. The Falkland Skua is amongst the fastest and most skilled of all the flying birds. Add to that power and strength, high intelligence and longevity and the penguins have a formidable foe. Skuas are quick to spot any weak or infirm “Jackasses” and often attack them in mobs. Being without the claws and hooked beaks of hawks, skuas have to rely on each other to take hold of different parts of their prey in order to tear it apart. Falkland Skuas are entirely pelagic during the southern winter and come ashore in the Falklands only between October and April. The illustration shows part of their distinctive “courtship walk”. They nest in loose colonies, often close to their prey which, in addition to Magellanic Penguins, also includes other penguins and prions. They also specialize in harrying and forcing shags to re-gorge their food in flight over the ocean.


      £1.20 Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus performing “ecstatic" display


      Breeding Magellanic Penguins are often seen stretching skyward and calling in what is termed the “ecstatic” display. Males will perform this in the spring to attract a mate. Once paired up, a male and female will often display simultaneously to strengthen the bond between them. Each bird sings loudly while they perform. These rituals convey territorial, sexual and identification information both to each other and to other members of the colony. They are often enacted as a pair bonding exercise after a skirmish with a predator or a rival. Such displays continue throughout the breeding season and in particular in the evening when the adults return to the nesting burrow from the sea. To experience a calm summer evening close to a “Jackass” colony, with the air full of penguin song, is amongst the most magical of Falkland experiences.

      Liner written by Tony Chater.

      Technical details:

      Technical details:

      Artist: Tony Chater

      Printer: BDT International Security Printing

      Process: Lithography

      Perforation: 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size: 30.56 x 38mm

      Sheet Layout: 50 (2 x 25)

      Release date: 21 August, 2015

      Production Co-ordination: Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd