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    • Endemic Plants
    • Endemic Plants
    • The Falkland Islands - Celebrating the Endemic Flora of the Falkland Islands


      The Falkland Islands are a remote archipelago situated in the South Atlantic, some 500 km from mainland South America. The Islands experience a cool temperate oceanic climate with a mean for January and July of c. 9°C and 2°C, respectively. With ground frost a possibility throughout the year, all seasons can be experienced in a day. Contrary to popular belief rainfall is low in the Islands with a mean annual precipitation of around 585 mm. The highest point on the Islands is Mt. Usborne on East Falkland, which stands at 705 m above sea level. Soils are generally characterised by a thin, peaty surface layer, usually no deeper than 40 cm, above poorly drained, silty-clay subsoil. Mineral soils are less common but do occur where underlying rocks are exposed, such as on mountain summits and along the coast. The main vegetation types supported are acid grasslands and dwarf shrub heathland. 181 plant taxa (including one hybrid) are native to the Falkland Islands with 14 of these being found nowhere else in the world – it is these endemic plants that we seek to celebrate through this unique stamp collection.


      31p

      Phlebolobium maclovianum

      Now considered rare, Falkland rock-cress Phlebolobium maclovianum was reported as ‘abundant on the sea coast’ by botanist Joseph Hooker when he visited the Islands in the 1800s. Hooker’s account provides evidence of a significant population reduction and there is observational evidence that grazing pressure has played a part in the decline of this crucifer as the largest known populations are found in ungrazed locations.


      31p

      Calceolaria fothergillii

      The charismatic Falkland Islands lady’s slipper Calceolaria fothergillii is so called because of the delicate shoe-like form of its flower’s enlarged lower lip. The intricate shape and patterning of the striking red and yellow flowers make it one of the most stunning to be seen in the Islands. This species can most frequently be found growing on coastal slopes within low-growing heathland. The white and fleshy bar folded against the outside of the lower flower lip is known to act as an edible reward to entice bird pollinators in Calceolaria fothergillii’s closest relative over in Patagonia. In the Falklands there is no record of removal of this appendage so intriguing questions remain over what pollinates C. fothergillii and whether the fleshy bar still plays a role in the process.


      76p

      Nastanthus falklandicus

      False-plantain Nastanthus falklandicus is one of the most range-restricted endemics found in the Falkland Islands, occurring only along the southwest coast of West Falkland and two nearby small Islands. It can be found growing in exposed, coastal sites on well-drained soils and has long taproots that make it ideally suited to such erosion-prone locations. In flower there is no mistaking N. falklandicus, as it bears a spectacular hemispherical cluster of tightly packed white flowers. It is not yet understood why this species is so limited in its distribution – just one of the many questions surrounding its ecology.


      76p

      Hamadryas argentea

      The large 3-lobed silvery leaves of the stunning silvery buttercup Hamadryas argentea make it difficult to confuse with any other plants currently growing in the wild in the Falklands. H. argentea has separate male and female plants and it has recently been noted that individual populations are often either one gender or the other. This is a worrying finding as H. argentea is classified as Near Threatened largely on the basis of its population size and this suggests that what we currently think of as ‘populations’ may just be one or two individuals that have spread vegetatively. The actual number of genetically distinct individuals across the Falklands may be drastically less than previously estimated.




      £1.01

      Nassauvia serpens

      Nowadays snakeplant Nassauvia serpens is found almost exclusively in stone runs and it was therefore previously thought that it had a strict requirement for this habitat. Surveys have since discovered that in the absence of grazing pressure, N. serpens can thrive in a range of other habitats close to running water or run-off.


      £1.01

      Nassauvia falklandica

      Falkland Nassauvia Nassauvia falklandica is the most recently described vascular plant species endemic to the Falkland Islands. Known only from upland sites in two hill ranges on West Falkland, its habit makes it look similar to a dwarf version of N. serpens; its flowerheads are similarly grouped into a globular clusters at the end of stems, however it reaches only about six centimetres in height. A key feature which distinguishes this species from all other Nassauvia species is the position of its breathing holes (known as ‘stomata’) to sunken hair-filled surfaces on the undersides of otherwise hairless leaves. The hairs create a still layer of air directly above the stomata, most likely helping to reduce water loss in the windy, exposed upland sites where N. falklandica grows.


      Text courtesy of Dr Rebecca Upson, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.


      Technical details:

      Designer Leigh-Anne Wolfaardt

      Printer BDT International Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 30.56 x 38mm

      Sheetlet size 170 x 140mm (6 x 66p)

      Sheet Layout 20 (2 x 10)

      Release date 21 November, 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact either Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      Email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com








    • Heroes
    • Heroes
    • HEROES OF THE IMPERIAL TRANS-ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION


      The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (Weddell Sea party 1914–16) is considered by some the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. By 1914 both Poles had been reached so Shackleton set his sights on being the first to traverse Antarctica.


      The plan was for the Ross Sea party, who travelled aboard the Aurora to a base at Cape Evans (Scott's HQ during the Terra Nova Expedition), to lay a series of supply depots to the base of the Beardmore Glacier and then return to the base. Meanwhile Shackleton would take Endurance into the Weddell Sea, make his way to the South Pole and then to the Ross Sea via the Beardmore Glacier (to pick up the supplies). Although the expedition failed to accomplish its objective it became recognised instead as an epic feat of endurance.


      Endurance left Britain on 8 August 1914 heading first for Buenos Aires. Here Shackleton, who had travelled on a faster ship, re-joined the expedition. Hurley also came on board, and William Bakewell and stowaway Perce Blackborow were added to the crew. On 26 October the ship sailed for the South Atlantic, arriving at South Georgia on 5 November. After a month-long halt in the Grytviken whaling station, Endurance sailed into the Weddell Sea. They steamed along the coast for a few days making slow progress until 19 January 1915 when Endurance was beset in consolidated pack ice which had closed in around the ship.


      Whilst stuck in the ice the men lived comfortably but the ice was slowly crushing Endurance. After it sank, its 28-man complement was stranded on the ice. After months spent in makeshift camps as the ice continued its northwards drift, the party took to the lifeboats to reach the inhospitable, uninhabited Elephant Island. Shackleton, Frank Worsley, Henry McNish, John Vincent, Tom Crean and Tim McCarthy then made an 800-mile open-boat journey, which they were fortunate to survive, in the James Caird to reach King Haakon Bay, South Georgia. After a period of recuperation Shackleton, Crean and Worsley set out on the now legendary crossing of South Georgia to Stromness and safety. From there Worsley was able to pick up McNish, Vincent and McCarthy on a whaler. After four attempts in different vessels, Shackleton was able to rescue the men waiting on Elephant Island who were brought home aboard the Chilean steamer Yelcho without loss of life.


      On the other side of the continent, the Ross Sea party overcame great hardships to fulfil its mission. The Aurora had broken away from its moorings and had eventually reached New Zealand; the fate of the shore party was unknown. After the Elephant Island party had been rescued, Shackleton joined the Aurora as it left New Zealand to rescue the men, reaching McMurdo Sound on 10 January 1917. Of the ten members who had been stranded, three had died, including the leader Aeneas Mackintosh. The ship returned to New Zealand on 9 February 1917, bringing all the remaining members of the expedition to safety. Upon their return many would serve in the First World War.


      South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands have chosen to mark the centenary of the arrival of the Expedition at Grytviken Whaling Station with the release of 3 issues focusing on three of the heroes of the expedition.


      Frank Hurley (15 October 1885 – 16 January 1962) was an Australian photographer and adventurer who participated in a number of expeditions to. At the age of 17 he bought a camera and became a partner in a postcard business. In 1908, he persuaded the Australian explorer Douglas Mawson to take him on the Australasian Antarctic Expedition. The expedition departed aboard Aurora in 1911 and returned in 1914. On his return, Hurley compiled a documentary film Home of the Blizzard. Almost immediately afterwards, he joined Sir Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. He was a member of the Weddell Sea Party aboard Endurance. When the ship was about to sink, he rescued his glass plates and film. As weight was crucial, only the 120 best were preserved. His stunning images of the expedition, including cine film of Endurance’s masts almost collapsing on him and the rescue from Elephant Island, are his best known work and have greatly contributed to the Endurance legend.


      Hurley also produced many pioneering colour images of the Expedition. The history, achievements and chronology of the expedition are well recorded. On these stamps we have chosen to focus on the more intimate photos that Hurley took and which bring to life the lifestyle of those aboard Endurance.


      Hurley served as an official photographer with Australian forces during both World Wars. Between the wars, he served with Mawson again on the British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Expedition (BANZARE) 1929-31. Two more documentaries were made: Southward Ho with Mawson and Siege of the South.


      65p Frank Hurley and Alexander Macklin “at home” on the Endurance.

      75p 'The Nightwatchman's Story' in the wardroom (or Ritz) of the Endurance

      £1 Midwinter dinner aboard the Endurance, 22 June 1915.

      £1.20 Dr Leonard Hussey and Frank Hurley playing chess on board the Endurance.

      FDC Self-portrait, Frank Hurley, expedition photographer.


      Frank Worsley (22 February 1872 – 1 February 1943) was a New Zealand sailor and explorer who served on Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition Weddell Sea party of 1914–1916, as captain of the Endurance. He also served in the Royal Navy Reserve during the First World War.


      He was an experienced sailor renowned for his ability to navigate to tiny remote islands. After the Endurance became trapped in the ice and wrecked Worsley and the other expedition members floated north on the pack ice and then sailed 3 lifeboats to Elephant Island. With many of the men too ill to continue Shackleton chose Worsley and 4 others to sail to South Georgia, some 800 miles across the stormy Southern Ocean, aboard the 22 foot James Caird. The men suffered terribly and were wet through for the entire journey. On the rare occasions they saw the sun Worsley had to be held steady by two men so he could read the sextant to position them. At one point the boat was almost overwhelmed by a huge wave and all hands had to set to baling water. For a while they did not know if it would be possible to save the vessel. Worsley’s navigation skills were crucial to the safe arrival of the James Caird at South Georgia.


      Worsley and Tom Crean then accompanied Shackleton on their march across the island, their safe arrival of course resulting in the rescue of all of the remaining members of the expedition.


      Upon his return Worsley captained the Q-ship PC.61 (heavily armed merchant ships with concealed weaponry, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks) and was responsible for the sinking of a submarine by carrying out a skilful ramming manoeuvre. For this he received a DSO and for later achievements he added a bar to this and then received an OBE. Later he served on Shackleton’s final expedition as captain of the Quest and published two books about his experiences. In the Second World War he initially served with the International Red Cross before falsifying his age and joining the Merchant Navy. Sadly he died of Lung Cancer in 1943.


      65p Portrait of Captain Frank Worsley.

      75p Frank Worsley and Reginald James observing stars during winter below the stern of the ice trapped Endurance.

      £1 This photograph shows Frank Worsley and Lionel Greenstreet looking across King Edward Cove with the Endurance below. It forms one half of a panoramic photograph.

      £1.20 Shackleton instructs Worsley to abandon the Endurance with the 3 lifeboats, dogs, sledges and a month’s supply of food

      FDC Frank Worsley photographed as he directs helmsmen through the ice.


      Tom Crean, (20 July 1877 - 27 July 1938). One of ten children Crean left school at 10 to help on the family farm in County Kerry, Ireland. At 15 he ran away from poverty and enlisted in the Royal Navy. By 1901 he was aboard HMS Ringarooma, part of the Royal Navy’s New Zealand Squadron, when it was ordered to assist Scott’s Discovery as it embarked on the British National Antarctic Expedition. Shortly before departure one of Scott's sailors attacked a Petty Officer and jumped ship, leaving the expedition a man short. Crean volunteered and upon the expedition’s return he was promoted on Scott’s recommendation. Scott held Crean in high regard so he was an early recruit for his Terra Nova Expedition 1910-13. He marched to within 150 miles of the South Pole and was among the last men to see Scott's doomed party alive. Crean, William Lashly and Edgar “Teddy” Evans faced a 700 mile journey back to Hut Point. Crean’s bravery and endurance at the end of this journey ultimately saved the life of his companions and earned him the Albert Medal.


      It is easy to see why Shackleton wanted Crean to accompany him in 1914. He was appointed Second Officer on Endurance with a range of duties. His reliability, formidable resolve and great mental strength were vital to Shackleton and, in the expedition's darkest moments, he and Frank Wild were invaluable.


      After Endurance was abandoned Crean guided the smallest of the lifeboats, the Stancomb Wills, on the 5 day voyage to Elephant Island as the navigating officer appeared to have suffered a breakdown. Upon arrival he was one of the "four fittest men" detailed by Shackleton to find a safe camping-ground. Frank Wild, who was to be in command of those remaining on the island, had asked that Crean remain but Shackleton changed his mind when Crean begged to sail on the James Caird.


      It was a truly terrifying and heroic journey to South Georgia, after which Worsley and Crean went on to accompany Shackleton on the 36 hour march across the mountains and glaciers of South Georgia to Stromness. Duncan Carse later wrote "I do not know how they did it, except they had to ...". Crean then joined Shackleton in the rescue of the 22 men left on Elephant Island.


      After the war Crean returned to his home village of Anascaulin where, through marriage, he owned a pub aptly re-named the South Pole Inn. He sadly died in 1938 of peritonitis and was buried alongside the river that flows past his inn.


      65p Portrait of Tom Crean by Frank Hurley.

      75p Crean had a varied range of duties which included taking charge of one of the dog teams. He was later involved in the care and nurture of the pups born to one of his dogs, Sally, early in the expedition.

      £1 The James Caird is launched from Elephant Island watched by Frank Hurley and 21 other expedition members hoping for eventual rescue.

      £1.20 The crew of the Endurance taken on the bow of the ship. Tom Crean is 2nd from the left in the first standing row.

      FDC Tom Crean (cropped) from a photograph taken with Alfred Cheetham.



      Technical details:

      Layout Bee Design

      Photography Frank Hurley, Royal Geographical Society (with IBG).

      Printer BDT International

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 28.45 x 42.58mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date 5 November, 2014

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd

    • IAATO
    • IAATO
    • British Antarctic Territory - The 25th Anniversary of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO)


      The Government of the British Antarctic Territory is pleased to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) with the release of this special stamp issue.


      IAATO is a non-profit industry association and its founding principles and mission, to advocate and promote the practice of safe and environmentally responsible private sector travel to the Antarctic, remain as true today as they did 25 years ago. The organisation, which was founded by seven operators in 1991, now has a global network of over 100 member companies including ship, yacht, air and land operators as well as tourism companies and bureaus, agents and specialist expedition management companies.


      Protecting the unique Antarctic environment is a collaborative effort. IAATO works within the framework of the Antarctic Treaty System, recognising that the protection of the continent is largely dependent upon the Treaty’s sound environmental policies. Members are committed to working diligently to establish extensive operational procedures, activity guidelines and restrictions, with the goal of "leaving the Antarctic Environment as pristine and majestic for future generations as it is today”. During the 2015-2016 season, 38,378 people visited Antarctica with IAATO members. Their high standards and self-regulatory approach mean that, to date, no discernible impact on the environment has been observed, while at the same time enabling people to continue experiencing Antarctica first-hand whilst protecting this extraordinary wilderness.


      The Government of the British Antarctic Territory works with IAATO to support effective visitor management and to better understand the tourism challenges of the future.


      66p: (Zodiac cruising among icebergs). All activities in Antarctica must undergo an assessment process by a relevant government authority before being granted permission to proceed. For IAATO activities, this means having less than a minor or transitory impact on the environment. Zodiac cruising offers a good means of observing wildlife without disturbance.


      76p (Tents lit at night): First-hand travel experiences lead to a better understanding of the destination, the need for responsible tourism and, ultimately, continued protection for future generations. IAATO’s wilderness etiquette underpins the recognition that the wilderness aspect is intrinsic to a visitor’s experience of Antarctica.


      £1.01 (Kayaks): IAATO members must incorporate relevant IAATO guidelines into their own operating procedures. Activities, such as kayaking, are led by experienced guides. IAATO provides an annual assessment for field staff to ensure they are up to date with the latest IAATO and Antarctic Treaty System requirements for safe and environmentally responsible operations.


      £1.22 (Vessel with penguins in foreground): The IAATO fleet consists of some 65 vessels. IAATO works closely with the International Hydrographic Organisation’s (IHO) Hydrographic Commission on Antarctica that promotes technical cooperation between Antarctic vessel operators in order to improve surveying and charting of shipping areas in the region.


      Technical details:

      Layout Bee Design

      Printer BDT International

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 28.45 x 42.58mm

      Sheet Layout 10

      Release date Expected mid-November 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      Photography:

      66p Kim Crosbie

      76p Richard Wadey

      £1.01 Colin Tribe

      £1.22 Paul Teolis

      FDC Richard Haworth

      For further information, please contact Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com

    • Ocean Zones
    • Ocean Zones
    • British Antarctic Territory - The Antarctic Ocean Zones


      The Antarctic waters are those that lie south of the Antarctic Polar Front or Antarctic Convergence, in an area also known as the Southern Ocean. The region is characterised by cold surface waters (< 4 C), which are generally nutrient poor but, where the waters meet the continental shelf, nutrients are liberated and cause local areas of enhanced productivity. Close to the Antarctic continent the temperatures are even cooler and the ocean surface freezes each winter to form sea-ice.


      Epipelagic fauna

      The epipelagic zone is the upper sunlit zone of the oceans, typically extending from the surface to around 200 m. This is the productive zone of the ocean, in which tiny plants, the phytoplankton, use the energy of the sun to grow and reproduce. Production in the epipelagic zone feeds the oceans, either by material falling from the surface layer or by deeper living species migrating to the epipelagic zone to feed.


      Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is widely regarded as the most important species found in this zone. Antarctic krill is a small shrimp-like animal that reaches around 50 mm in length. It is highly abundant, particularly in the area of the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea, forming enormous swarms which can be miles in length and a hundred metres deep. Krill are regarded as the key species in the Southern Ocean food-web, consuming phytoplankton and providing the principal prey for many species of penguin, whale and seal.


      Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) are another important member of the epipelagic fauna, but are restricted to the cold (0 to -2 C) surface waters close to the Antarctic continent. In order to survive at such cold temperatures, the blood of Antarctic silverfish contains special anti-freeze proteins. Antarctic silverfish reach a maximum size of 25 cm, and whilst the younger fish are limited to the epipelagic layer, adults can be found as deep as 700 m. Antarctic silverfish are important prey for emperor and Adélie penguins, Antarctic toothfish and Weddell seals.


      The Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) is a large seal (up to 600 kgs) that is named after the British explorer and sealer, James Weddell. Weddell seals are the most southerly of all mammals and breeds on fast ice, close to the Antarctic continent. Adults are brownish, with a lighter mottled underside. These psychrophilic seals dive to depths of 500 m or more and can stay under water for over 80 minutes whilst they forage on fish and squid.


      Mesopelagic fauna

      Also known as the twilight zone, the mesopelagic layer extends from the lower limit of the epipelagic layer to 1000 m. Only a limited amount of light reaches the mesopelagic layer and many of the animals produce their own light using a process called bioluminescence. Bioluminescence can be used to attract prey, attract mates, as a means of distracting predators or as a form of camouflage. Some mesopelagic animals will venture into the surface at night to feed, but return to the relative safety of the darker, deeper mesopelagic zone during day.


      The Antarctic lantern fish (Electrona antarctica) is one of the most abundant fish in the mesopelagic layer of the Southern Ocean. Like other lantern fish, this silvery fish, which grows to around 120 mm, has a row of light organs on the underside, which are thought to camouflage the fish when viewed from below by possible predators. Male and female lantern fish also have different lights on the tail region, which are important for identifying potential partners. These abundant fish feed on small crustaceans and are themselves the prey of penguins and seals.




      The glacial squid (Galiteuthis glacialis) is one of the most abundant and widely distributed squid species in the Southern Ocean, and reaches a maximum size of around 50 cm. Smaller squid are found in depths of 200-400 m, whilst larger adults occur deeper. Glacial squid predate on planktonic crustacea and are consumed by Ross seals, fish and albatross. How the deep-living squid are consumed by albatross is a bit of a mystery, but it is thought that female glacial squid float to the surface after their single spawning event and are then susceptible to feeding albatross.


      The pram bug (Phronima sp.) is a strange type of amphipod crustacean that is found in the mesopelagic layers of the world’s oceans and are said to have been the inspiration for film Alien. Female pram bugs use their powerful claws to turn gelatinous salps into mobile nurseries for their eggs and young.


      Bathypelagic fauna

      The bathypelagic (or midnight) zone, which extends from 1,000 m down to 4,000 m, is completely dark except for the bioluminescence produced by many of the animals. The name bathypelagic is derived from the Greek bathys meaning deep. The fauna of the bathypelagic zone is not unique to the Southern Ocean, with many species also known to occur further north.


      The anglerfish or dreamer (Oneirodes notius) is a rather fearsome looking ambush predator that uses a modified fin as an illuminated fishing rod to lure prey. Unwitting fish that are attracted to the light are quickly snaffled by the large mouth, which is armed with sharp teeth. The dark colour of the fish ensures it is invisible to both predators and prey, but it is known to be consumed by Antarctic toothfish.


      The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni) is one of the giants of the deep-sea, and the largest living invertebrate, reaching over 10 m in length and up to 750 kgs in weight. The eight arms and two tentacles of the colossal squid are equipped with suckers and rotating hooks that enable it to grasp their fish prey and, possibly, battle with predators, such as the sperm whale. Many sperm whales carry scars that are believed to be caused by the hooks of the colossal squid.


      The scaly dragonfish (Stomias boa boa) is a slender fish, with a large mouth and an impressive set of teeth. The scaly dragonfish is widely distributed in the world’s oceans, inhabiting the bathypelagic zone during the day, but venturing into the mesopelagic at night to find its prey. It uses its barbell to attract fish prey and has a row of lights on the underside to provide camouflage.


      Abyssopelagic fauna

      The abyssopelagic zone, which extends from 4,000 m to the sea-floor, is one of the most inaccessible and hence least known regions on the planet. The term abysso is derived from the Greek abyssos, meaning bottomless. This sparsely populated zone has little energy input and the fauna includes some strange creatures that have adapted to a lightless and low energy environment.


      The dogtooth grenadier (Cynomacrurus piriei) is a pelagic rattail that reaches 50 cm total length. The rattails are a group of deep-sea fish that take their name from the long, tapered, rat-like tail. Most are associated with the sea-floor, but the dogtooth grenadier is an exception being pelagic. Although included in the abyssopelagic fauna, it is also found in the bathyepelagic, which has been subject to much greater sampling effort.


      The deep-sea alarm (or crown) jellyfish (Atolla wyvillei) has a deep red disc surrounded by 20 normal tentacles and one enlarged one. The alarm jellyfish gets its name from the bioluminescent flashes it emits when startled or attacked by predators. These are thought to be a “burglar alarm’, intended to attract bigger predators to whatever is attacking the jellyfish, allowing the jellyfish to escape predation.


      The blind or dumbo octopus (Cirrothauma murrayi) is one of the deep-living “dumbo octopus” that have large fins and arms covered with long hair-like cirri. The blind octopus reaches a metre in length and has been caught in nets or on camera from as deep as 5000 m. Although also known as the blind octopus, Cirrothauma does have vestigial eyes, but they lack lens and are simply light sensitive organs.


      Text Courtesy of Dr Martin Collins.


      Technical details:

      Artist Nick Shewring

      Printer Cartor Security Printing

      Process Lithography

      Perforation 14 per 2cms

      Stamp size 42 x 28mm

      Sheetlet size 170 x 155mm

      Sheet Layout 66p, 76p, £1.01 & £1.21 in sheets of 10 stamps.

      Food Web Sheetlet 12 x 66p stamps

      Release date Expected mid-November, 2016

      Production Co-ordination Creative Direction (Worldwide) Ltd


      For further information, please contact Charles Pobjoy

      Pobjoy Mint Ltd, Tel: +44 (0) 1737 818181, Fax: +44 (0) 1737 818199

      Email: charles@pobjoy.com or Avril Hadden email: ahadden@pobjoy.com

      www.pobjoystamps.com


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